You ask, we answer

According a national survey conducted, more people fear in restroom that any other public place.

Respondents said they believed they were most likely to pickup germs in the following places:
places
public bathroom
Restaurant
Airplanes
Subway n trains
Movie theaters

According to recent poll conducted by, nearly 30 percent of people perceive themselves to be at a high risk of catching germs at public restroom

 

Excerpts:

  1. Nearly 30 percent of people avoid public restroom out of fear of germs. Many of the common illness transmitted in public restroom include colds and flu, skin infection, intestinal illness and also potential fatal illness, such as those caused by salmonella bacteria, e. coil and hepatitis.
  2. Four out of five respondents are concerned about germs in public bathrooms

 

Germ survey-

What public thinks is the Germiest??

  1. playground and garden
  2. handrails of Escalator, lifts
  3. shopping cart handles, rack
  4. chairs, tables, picnic table
  5. themes and water park

 

At home
what studies have shown to be the Germiest:

  1. dishrag, where all the dishes are kept
  2. kitchen sink is one of the germiest place
  3. toilet seat
  4. dustbin, garbage can
  5. refrigerator, microwave, television remote
  6. doorknobs

 

In the workplace
what studies have proven to be the germiest

  1. phone receiver, keypad
  2. desktop
  3. buttons of keyboard
  4. elevator buttons, staircase handrails
  5. toilet seat


Outdoor and in public
what studies have proven to be the germiest

  1. playground and gardens
  2. elevator button, staircase handrail
  3. shopping cart handles, racks
  4. chairs, tables, picnic table
  5. washroom, toilet seats


Important tips one need’s to follow:

  1. one should always try to clean their hands after shaking someone’s hand or after using public transportation
  2. one should always try to wash their hand after using the washroom, and before eating in a restaurant.
  3. It is critical to keep your hand clean after coming in from being outside or after sneezing or coughing otherwise germs trend to replicate.
  4. Cleaning hands after using public transportation is of utter importance.
  5. It is important to wash your face at least twice a day to remove all dirt and germs that u have come in contact with during the course of the day.


Tissue…No big deal, you think? North America use 50lsb.per person (22.4 kg)of tissues paper per year, up from 37lsb, per Person (17Kg) twenty years ago. That’s a lot of toilet paper and paper towels! The average Canadian use about 22kg of these product every year including approx 100 rolls of toilet paper but an average Indian still continues to use less then 2kg of tissues paper per year.

History
Although paper had been known as a wrapping and padding material in china since the 2nd century BC, the first use of toilet paper in human history dates back to the 6th century AD, in early medieval china. In 589 AD the scholar-official yan Zhitui (531-591) wrote about the use of toilet paper:

”paper on which there are quotation or commentaries from five classic or the names so sages, I dare not use for toilet purpose”.

During the later Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) a Muslim traveler to china in the year 851 AD remarked:

“They (the chiness) are not careful about cleanliness, and they do not wash themselves with water when they have done their necessities: but they only wipe themselves with paper.”

During the early 14th century (Yuan Dynasty) it was recorded that in modern day Zhejiang province alone there was an annual manufacturing of toilet paper amounting in ten million packages of 1,000 to 10,000 sheets of toilet paper each. During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD), it was recorded in 1393 that 720,000 sheets of toilet paper (two by three feet in size) were produced for the general use of the imperial court at the capital of Nanjing. From the records of the imperial bureau of supplies (bao Chao Si) of the same year, it was also recorded that for Emperor Hongwu,s imperial family alone, there were 15,000 sheets of special soft-fabric toilet paper made, and each sheet of toilet paper was even perfumed.

Elsewhere, wealthy people used wool, lace or hemp for their ablutions, while less wealthy people used their hand when defecating into rivers, or cleaned themselves with various materials such as rag etc. In Ancient Rome, a sponge on a stick was commonly used, and after usage placed back in a bucket of saltwater.

the 16th century French satirical writer François Rabeals in his series of novels Gargantuan and Pantagruel discussing the various ways of cleansing oneself at the toilet, wrote that:


“He who uses paper on his filthy bum, will always find his bullocks lined with scum”, proposing that the soft feather on the back of a live goose provide an optional cleansing medium.


TISSUE PAPER:
Tissue paper is a lightweight, light creped paper. Tissue can be made both from virgin and recycled paper pulp. Tissue paper is used to make a huge range of product with diff properties and quality demand. Key properties are: strength, absorbency, basis weight, thickness (bulk), brightness, stretch, appearance. Tissue paper is produced on paper machine that has a single large steam heated drying cylinder (Yankee dryer) fitted with a hot air hood. The raw material is paper pulp. The Yankee cylinder is sprayed with adhesive to make paper stick Creping is done by the Yankee’s doctor blade that is scraping the dry paper off the cylinder surface. The crinkle(creeping) is controlled by the strength of the adhesive, geometry of the doctor blade, speed difference between the Yankee and final section of the paper machine and paper pulp characteristics.

 

Out of the world’s estimated production of 21 million tones of tissue, Europe produces approx six million tones.

The European tissue market is worth approx 10 billion Euros annually and is growing at a rate of around 3%. The European market respects around 23% of the global market. In North America, people are consuming around three times as much tissue as in Europe.

Seeing the world market, Indian market is still very small but has long potential to grow. Average consumption by an Indian is still far behind if we compare that with of American and Europeans.

In European, the industry is represented by the European tissue symposium (ETS), a trade association. The members of ETS represent the majority of tissue paper producer throughout Europe and about 90% of total European tissue production ETS was founded in 1971 and is based in Brussels since 1992.

 

Aluminum foil
Aluminum foil is aluminum prepared in tin metal leafs, with a thickness less than 0.2 mm/0.008 in, although much thinner gauges down to 0.006 mm are commonly used. Annual production of aluminum foil was approx 800,000 tones in Europe and 600,000 tones (1.3 billion Lbs) in the USA in 2003. Approx 75% of aluminum foil is used for packing of foods, cosmetics, and chemical product and 25% used for industrial application.

Tin was first replaced by aluminum in 1910, when the first aluminum foil rolling plant, “Dr.Lauber, Neher. And Emmis fen” was opened in Kreuzlingen, Switzerland. The plant, owned by J.G. Neher sons, the aluminum manufacturers, started in 1886 in Schaffhausen and Switzerland, at the foot of the Rhine falls – capturing the falls energy to produce aluminum. Neher's sons together with Dr. Lauber discovered the endless rolling process and the use of aluminum foil as a protective banner in December 1907.

The first use of foil in the united state was in 1931 for wrapping life surveys, candy bars, and gum. Processors evolved over time to include the use of print, color, lacquer, laminate and the embossing of the aluminum.

BEFORE ALUMINIUM FOIL?
Foil made from thin leaf of tin was commercially available before its aluminium counterpart. In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, tin foil was in common use and some people countries to refer to the new product by the old name, tin foil is much stiffer than aluminium foil. It tends to give a slight tin taste to the food wrapped in it, which is one major reason it has largely been supplanted by aluminium and other material for wrapping food.

as aluminum foil acts as a complete barrier to light and oxygen (which causes fats to oxidize or become rancid), odours and flavor, moistures and bacteria, is used extensively in food and pharmaceutical packing. Aluminium foil is widely sold into the consumer market usually in rolls of around 50 centimeters width and several meters in length [8]. It is used for wrapping food in order to preserved it, for example when storing leftover food in a refrigerator (were taking sandwiches on a journey, or when selling some kinds of take-away or fast food.

Aluminium foil is produced by rolling sheet ingots cast from molten aluminium then re-rolling on sheet and foil rolling mills to the desired thickness, or by continuously casting and cold rolling. To maintain a constant thickness is aluminium foil production, beta radiation is passed through the foil to a sensor the other side. If the intensity becomes too high, then the rollers adjust, increasing the thickness.

 

Aluminium foils thicker than 0.025 mm (0.001 in) are impermeable to oxygen and water. Foils thinner than this become slightly permeable due to minute pinholes caused by the production process.

The per capita consumption of paper and paper products are increasing in India and demand for napkins alone has been recorded as 25,000 tonnes. There is very good demand of this type of items and demand increase per annum 10%. It can be presumed that there is growth of hygiene consciousness as comp0ared to about 10 years back and its constantly rising.

The value of the global tissue paper business is $30 billion, and the volume is over 20 million tones. The business is slowly but steadily rising in India where economic growth, rising standards of living, rapid growth of travel, hotel businesses and fast food chains are all contributing to the demand growth.